Does Mississippi need a statute voiding forum selection clauses?

Recently the United States Supreme Court took a close look at the enforceability of forum selection clauses in Atlantic Marine Construction Co. v. U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas.  In that decision, the Supreme Court found that such forum selection clauses, when properly drafted, are enforceable.  Only where there is an overwhelmingly strong public interest should a venue selection provision be ignored.

Notwithstanding the Supreme Court’s decision, there are some twenty-four (24) states that have enacted statutes which render such forum selection clauses void.  Whether these statutes can withstand constitutional scrutiny was not addressed by the Supreme Court in Atlantic Marine.  An example is Arizona’s statute that provides as follows:

A. The following are against this state's public policy and are void and unenforceable:

1. A provision, covenant, clause or understanding in, collateral to or affecting a construction contract that makes the contract subject to the laws of another state or that requires any litigation arising from the contract to be conducted in another state.

2. A provision, covenant, clause or understanding in, collateral to or affecting a construction contract stating that a party to the contract cannot suspend performance under the contract or terminate the contract if another party to the contract fails to make prompt payments under the contract pursuant to section 32-1129, 32-1129.01 or 32-1129.02.

B. Any mediation, arbitration or other dispute resolution proceeding arising from a construction contract for work performed in this state shall be conducted in this state.

A.R.S. §32-32-1129.05.

It may be time for Mississippi to consider adopting a similar statute to protect resident contractors from having to pursue remedies against a non-resident contractor in a foreign jurisdiction and also being subjected to that state’s laws.

If you have any thoughts or comments on this issue, please contact Lee Nations, Executive Director for Associated General Contractors of Mississippi at (601) 9811-1144 or at lee@msagc.com.

Forum Selection Clauses

The Mississippi  courts will enforce forum selection clauses when the intent is clear and unequivocal.  When confronted with challenges to the enforcability of a forum selection clause, the  first step in analysis is whether it is mandatory or permissive. Titan Indemnity Company v. Hood, 895 So.2d 138, 146-47 (Miss. 2005) (.pdf). The determination of what language is considered mandatory as opposed to permissive was carefully examined and discussed in Bently v. Mutual Benefits Corp., 237 F.Supp.2d 699 (S.D. Miss. 2002) (.pdf). In Bently, the district court was tasked with determining whether to enforce a forum selection clause with language strikingly similar to the language found in SCP’s terms and conditions. Its analysis followed the two-step inquiry articulated by the Fifth Circuit in Caldas & Sons, Inc. v. Willingham, 17 F.3d 123 (5th Cir. 1994) (.pdf). As to whether the forum selection clause was mandatory or permissive, the district court reasoned that "a mandatory forum selection clause has express language limiting the action to the courts of a specific locale which is clear, unequivocal and mandatory." Bently, 237 F.Supp.2d at 702 (emphasis added). The district court when on to cite a number of decisions discussing the importance of limiting language in the forum selection clause to obviate any uncertainty with regard to the exclusivity of the chosen forum.

If the forum selection clause is considered mandatory, the second step in the legal analysis requires the court to consider (1) whether "Its incorporation into the contract was the result of fraud, undue influence or overweening bargaining power; (2) [t]he selected forum is so gravely difficult and inconvenient that the resisting party will for all practical purposes be deprived of its day in court; or (3) [t]he enforcement of the clause would contravene a strong public policy of the forum in which the suit is brought, declared by statute or judicial decisions." Titan Indemnity Company v. Hood, 895 So.2d 138,146-47 (Miss. 2005).