Checklist for Mississippi Construction Contractors

If you have ever been the apparent low bidder on a public construction project and had your bid rejected because of an irregularity in the bid documents, you are not alone.  What is even more frustrating, and will make you fighting mad, is when the public agency decides to waive the same irregularity of a competitor when you are the second low bidder.  Perhaps the best way to avoid this situation is to make sure that you have completed your bid in strict accordance with the instructions to bidders.  I know it is difficult to focus on all the particulars when less than an hour before the bid is to be submitted subcontractors and suppliers are sending in prices or changing the ones previously provided.  Here is a simple bid checklist that may help you avoid those last minute mistakes.

  • Read the "Instruction to Bidders" when you obtain a copy of the solicitation to make sure that there are no unusual or different bid requirements. 
    • Pre-Bid Conference
    • Bid Bond
    • Site Visit
    • Listing of Subcontractors
  • Prepare the bid envelope in advance, identifying (1) the project, (2) the person to whom the bid is to be submitted, (3) the location where the bid is to be submitted and (4) the date and time for the submission of the bid.  ALWAYS PLACE CERTIFICATE OF RESPONSIBILITY NUMBER ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE ENVELOPE.
  • Complete the bid form and check to determine whether all the blank spaces for prices are completed with a dollar amount or a "---" or "-0-".
  • Check your addition and multiplication for unit prices and total bid price.
  • Acknowledge all Amendments/Addenda to the solicitation.
  • List subcontractors, if required.
  • Sign and date the bid documents.
  • Check the bid bond, if required, to make sure that it is in the correct amount and proper form.
  • Place bid documents and bid bond, if required, into envelope and submit.

In the event you are determined to be the apparent low bidder, and your bid is not more than ten percent (10%) above the amount of funds allocated for the project, it is likely that you will be awarded the contract.

Show Me The Money...Now!

In these difficult economic times, an Owner and/or Contractor may be tempted not to make full and final payment after the work is complete and there is beneficial use and occupancy of the facility. The Owner and/or Contractor may justify this conduct even though there is not currently a problem with the work because there "may" be unanticipated future problems with that will need to be addressed. However, withholding payment for potential defects or warranty issues could turn out not to be a wise decision.

An Owner and/or Contractor’s "belief" that it may have warranty claims sometime in the future may be insufficient to justify withholding of final payment as explained by the Mississippi Supreme Court in Crawford Commercial Constructors, Inc. v. Marine Industrial Residential Insulation, Inc., 437 So.2d 15 (Miss. 1983). In that case, a subcontractor sued the general contractor for payment under a roofing contract. The general contractor had refused to pay the subcontractor on the basis that it "believed the roof was improperly installed, so that [the general contractor] will ultimately be required to repair it to satisfy the building’s owner." Id. The Court ruled that the general contractor’s "beliefs" were conjectural. Id. at 16. In affirming the trial court’s decision in favor of the subcontractor, the Mississippi Supreme Court stated:

Under our authorities there must be a present, existent actionable title or interest which must be completed at the time the cause of action is filed. (citations omitted). A mere inchoate right is not sufficient and neither is a prospective danger of injury. (citations omitted)…"It is certainly an undisputable and invariable rule of law that a right of action must be complete when an action therefore is commenced…."…"we consider it to be the well-settled, general rule, that the facts which constitute the ground of a suit must exist at the time the suit is instituted…"

 

Id. at 16.

In addition to this jurisprudence, Mississippi has enacted what are generally known as "Prompt Payment Statutes" for both public and private construction contracts. Both of these statutes require timely final payment once the contract has been determined to be substantially complete or there has been beneficial use and occupancy. There are also "Late Payment Interest Statutes" which apply when a contractor fails to make payment "without reasonable cause" to its lower tier subcontractors or suppliers within fifteen (15) days after receipt of payment.

There is no provision for recovery of attorneys’ fees in either the "Prompt Payment Statutes" or the "Late Payment Interest Statutes." Contractors therefore need to ensure the issue of attorneys’ fees associated with collection efforts are adequately addressed in their contract documents.

You can expect this case law and these statutes to be cited frequently in payment disputes during these difficult economic times.

Bureau of Building, Grounds and Real Property Management Updating Construction Manual

The Mississippi Department of Finance and Administration, Bureau of Building, Grounds and Real Property Management is currently updating its BOB Construction Manual.  This is your opportunity to participate in the process.  If you want to be heard, you should email Glenn Kornbrek, the Assistant Director for the Bureau of Building, Grounds and Real Property Management (KornbrG@dfa.state.ms.us).  Mr. Kornbrek’s telephone number is (601) 359-3894.

Forum Selection Clauses

The Mississippi  courts will enforce forum selection clauses when the intent is clear and unequivocal.  When confronted with challenges to the enforcability of a forum selection clause, the  first step in analysis is whether it is mandatory or permissive. Titan Indemnity Company v. Hood, 895 So.2d 138, 146-47 (Miss. 2005) (.pdf). The determination of what language is considered mandatory as opposed to permissive was carefully examined and discussed in Bently v. Mutual Benefits Corp., 237 F.Supp.2d 699 (S.D. Miss. 2002) (.pdf). In Bently, the district court was tasked with determining whether to enforce a forum selection clause with language strikingly similar to the language found in SCP’s terms and conditions. Its analysis followed the two-step inquiry articulated by the Fifth Circuit in Caldas & Sons, Inc. v. Willingham, 17 F.3d 123 (5th Cir. 1994) (.pdf). As to whether the forum selection clause was mandatory or permissive, the district court reasoned that "a mandatory forum selection clause has express language limiting the action to the courts of a specific locale which is clear, unequivocal and mandatory." Bently, 237 F.Supp.2d at 702 (emphasis added). The district court when on to cite a number of decisions discussing the importance of limiting language in the forum selection clause to obviate any uncertainty with regard to the exclusivity of the chosen forum.

If the forum selection clause is considered mandatory, the second step in the legal analysis requires the court to consider (1) whether "Its incorporation into the contract was the result of fraud, undue influence or overweening bargaining power; (2) [t]he selected forum is so gravely difficult and inconvenient that the resisting party will for all practical purposes be deprived of its day in court; or (3) [t]he enforcement of the clause would contravene a strong public policy of the forum in which the suit is brought, declared by statute or judicial decisions." Titan Indemnity Company v. Hood, 895 So.2d 138,146-47 (Miss. 2005).